Can you identify in which city you’d find this streetscape? (Hint: it’s not Vancouver.)
Answer below the fold.
Can you identify in which city you’d find this streetscape? (Hint: it’s not Vancouver.)
Answer below the fold.
Cycling and Walking: This is what we did and this is what happened. From the City of Vancouver:
This just in from the City of Vancouver:
2017 summer sees record cycling volumes on five major bike routes across Vancouver
This July and August, Vancouver saw record cycling volumes on five of the city’s 10 fully protected bike routes, including at Science World, Union and Hawkes, Hornby and Robson, Lions Gate, and Canada Line. …
Over the past year, several improvements have been made to create more opportunities for people of all ages and abilities to choose to cycle to get around the city for transportation and recreation.
Of priority cycling routes identified in the Transportation 2040, the City has now completed Comox/Helmken Greenway, Point Grey-Cornwall section of the Seaside Greenway, spot improvements to the Union/Adanac Bikeway, and safety improvements to SW Marine Drive.
Record cycling volumes by location in comparison to previous record years:
|Bike Route||Previous Record (Years vary)||Current Year (2017)|
|Record Breaking in 2017|
|Science World||204,000 in August 2016||227,000 in July *|
|Adanac Bikeway (at Hawks)||115,000 in June 2015||120,000 in July|
|Hornby Bikeway (at Robson)||75,000 in August 2016||80,000 in July|
|Lions Gate Bridge||70,000 in June 2015||71,000 in July|
|Canada Line Pedestrian and Bike Bridge||28,000 in June 2015||29,000 in July|
|Other Major Routes and highest volume month in 2017|
|Burrard and Cornwall||195,000 in July 2014||190,000 in August|
|Dunsmuir Street (Union and Main)||69,000 in August 2016||66,000 in August|
|Dunsmuir Viaduct||76,000 in June 2015||73,000 in July|
|10th Ave and Clark||82,000 in June 2015||70,000 in July|
|Point Grey Road at Volunteer Park||102,000 in July 2015||99,000 in July|
*Data is not available for August 2017 due to technical difficulties with counter equipment.
Despite extensive construction work on Burrard Bridge and Point Grey Road over the last year, cycling volumes along those routes have remained high.
The highest record breaker in the summer of 2017 was the Science World location.
The bike counter at Science World was installed in March 2013 when the first bike count of 53,000 was recorded. Only four years later, bike counts at Science World have increased more than four times that amount. The highest monthly bike volume that has been recorded to date is 204,000, which was reached at Science World last August 2016. This Science World record was broken this July reaching 227,000.
The City has been collecting data on protected bike routes since 2009. Data is reported out monthly and can be viewed online. The data includes monthly two-way totals rounded to the nearest thousand, and shows mid-week averages on 10 protected bike routes.
The British have a developed way of building shaming and have wasted no time saying exactly what they feel about the 380 million pound Nova building located next to Victoria station near London’s Buckingham Palace. As Oliver Wright in The Guardian states this “complex, which lurches outside the station in its bright red costume like a drunken member of the Queen’s Guard, has been crowned winner of the Carbuncle Cup for the UK’s ugliest building by Building Design magazine. It beat some strong competition, from the new entrance to Preston station, student housing in Portsmouth and the first phase of Battersea power station’s residential development, among other lurid crimes against the built environment.”
The Carbuncle Cup is named after unguarded remarks made by Prince Charles who called Ahrends, Burton and Koralek‘s London’s National Gallery new wing a “monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend”. Following up on such eloquence, Building Design magazine launched the Cup in 2006, with voting for badly designed buildings conducted online, and final judging done on a short list of those remarkable buildings.
The Nova building has been described by judges as “one that sets a new benchmark for dystopian dysfunction” with “the bright red prows that adorn various points of the exterior like the inflamed protruding breasts of demented preening cockerels”.
The architects PLP Architecture are described as “serial offenders” for their 22 Bishopsgate building which was following “the vogue for faceted glass office buildings”. A photo of the glass walled Bishopsgate structure is below.
It is unfortunate that PLP Architecture describes the red colour as being a reference to “an important transport interchange” and the use of facets and cross-bracing were “patterns to lighten the effect on your eye, to break up the surface, and create more of a decorative surface”. This development takes up a whole city block with two office buildings, and a residential building. The 2017 Carbuncle Cup was awarded specifically for the office buildings, although the residential buildings also warranted attention, and were called “mangled gobbledygook… far too many influences have been at play”.
The Nova has no strong interactive ground plane and no scale or reference for pedestrians at street level other than the unfortunate triangles which look like A frame huts. What is troubling is how a whole city block in one of the most touristic parts of London could have morphed into such an androgynous design. Even the double-decker buses seem to cower away from it.
The sadness in this “wedge gone rogue” is how a design like this with no reference to the historical streetscape could have been developed. Is there a need for a similar system of awards in Canada for architecture that leaves citizens breathless for the wrong reasons?
Even as Vancouver continues to support and grow its already-strong digital economy, perhaps there is welcome congruence around broader city planning strategies between Vancouver and Seattle’s gorilla.
Amazon’s selection criteria, as described in the company’s request for proposal, sets out a compelling list of the attributes cities must have if they aspire to be a serious part of the America’s growing digital economy.
Among several other takeaway thoughts:
Connected and sustainable placemaking. The Amazon RFP reads like an urban planner’s dream, brimming with calls for energy efficient buildings, recycling services, public plazas, green space, and access to multiple modes of transportation. While Amazon will apparently consider greenfield sites as well as existing developments for its new headquarters, it emphasizes its interest in promoting walkability and connectivity between densely clustered buildings through “sidewalks, bike lanes, trams, metro, bus, light rail, train, and additional creative options.”
Yes. Bike lanes.
Even with sky-high land costs in the City of Vancouver not all developers are relying on multiple lot assembly in order to build mixed use projects. While traveling around East Vancouver you notice various multi-family developments making it work on smaller lots, some as narrow as 33′.
4376 Fraser Street
3401 Fraser Street
6555 Victoria Drive
3939 Knight Street
Simple but effective none the less. No doubt the metrics work due to the less desirable arterials when compared to the Westside, but nice to see some basic effort in materials and ornamentation. These buildings have more architectural interest than some of the newly proposed downtown condo towers.
It’s not often that a restaurant can survive on top of a podium, largely unmarked, up three flights of stairs. But Guu at Nelson Square at 808 Nelson has pulled it off. In addition to the food, another fine feature is the outdoor patio next to a quite wonderful west-coast garden in the Japanese style:
That pine looks like it has had years of nurturing in its own little microclimate. Kudos to the gardeners.
Here’s your chance to be part of the City of Vancouver’s “Arbutus Greenway Design Jam that will involve your participation in two evenings and two days looking at how the newest large linear public space in Vancouver will be designed and developed.
Are you passionate about public spaces? Do you want to make new friends over a fun and inspiring weekend? Would you love to immerse yourself in all things Arbutus Greenway? Apply today to become an Arbutus Champion!
During the Arbutus Greenway Design Jam, Arbutus Champions will participate in a collaborative workshop to help develop draft designs for the future Arbutus Greenway.
Here’s the plan:
October 20, 5pm – 9pm: Set the Stage and Introductions
October 27, 5pm – 9pm: Deep Dive into the Arbutus Greenway
October 28, 9am – 5pm: Deeper Dive and Start to Bring it Together
October 29, 9am – 5pm: Bring it all Together
Who can apply?
There is no experience required. You can be from any part of Vancouver. You must have a passion for the Arbutus Greenway and public spaces, and you must be available for all four days of the Design Jam. Bring your boldest and brightest ideas and we’ll provide everything else!
How will Arbutus Champions be selected?
There are 100 spots available for the Design Jam. Participants will be randomly selected by location, age, and gender to reach a broad demographic.
Interested? Apply here.
Here’s a proposal to turn part of Columbia Street and several unconnected existing public spaces into something much bigger and more elaborate.
The Youth Collaboration For Chinatown (YCC-YVR) is behind the proposal. Reaction from the City of Vancouver is not clear at this point. But it is clear that this proposal will affect the contentious 105 Keefer development by changing road space into people space on its west side. Not necessarily a bad thing for site proponents Beedie Development Group and Merrick Architecture.
The proposed plaza starts at the intersection of Keefer and Columbia, and runs a half-block north, and incorporates two existing plazas into a new “Gateway to Chinatown”.
The existing plazas are the Chinatown Memorial Plaza and the plaza south of the Chinese Cultural Centre of Greater Vancouver (see diagram below).
Part of the YCC-YVR’s idea is to build on and extend the North East False Creek draft area plan, and create a natural pathway into Chinatown for the post-viaduct world, incorporating historical themes. The city’s plan does this via the Carrell St. Promenade, which stops at Keefer.
[Click for a larger version slide show].
Back to 105 Keefer: HERE are some rather congruent thoughts from the proponents (Merrick Architecture)
The subject site is nestled in Chinatown’s natural gathering place, bordered by two significant arterial connectors – Keefer Street along its south edge, and Columbia Street along the west. Located adjacent to the Chinatown Memorial Plaza facing the Memorial to Chinese-Canadian Veterans, and across from the Dr. Sun Yat Sen Classical Chinese Garden and Park, the site stands among many of Chinatown’s most notable cultural landmarks and at a natural apex of pedestrian traffic.
The opportunity to house neighbourhood seniors, provide an activity centre on site, near cultural facilities and in their existing community, has been identified as vital to the success of the project.
With its location at a central node of the Chinatown community, the site presents an excellent opportunity to revitalize the urban fabric and pedestrian experience in the area through public realm improvements and community contributions. It brings a chance to collectively contribute towards a vision that will reinvigorate Vancouver’s Chinatown.
If ever there was a call to seriously reboot our cities and suburbs, this report from The Guardian provides direct evidence that even the simple act of walking for exercise is not being followed by many middle-aged people in Great Britain. There is a direct link between the lack of exercise and several serious health conditions. Quite simply, walking reduces the risk of developing over 41 diseases and boosts the immune system for over 24 hours. But even with this information the British national public health service observed that 41 per cent of adults aged 40 to 60 years of age “walk less than 10 minutes continuously each month at a brisk pace of at least 3mph.”
There have been campaigns to encourage folks to get out of their cars and walk to shops and lunch breaks as a way to add years to their life spans. The evidence clearly shows that increased fitness, better moods, weight control and a 15 per cent reduction in premature death can result. While the push has been on to make suburbs and city streets more universally walkable to encourage sociability and physical activity, that message is not getting the middle-aged moving. The advice from the United States Surgeon General is 150 minutes of active walking a week for every American. The British advice is the same, but the findings are that 25 per cent of the population is doing less than 30 minutes of exercise a week-that’s less than five minutes a day. There have been several campaigns in Britain to try to get people walking briskly for ten minutes a day and there is the “Active 10” app which is available free from the National Health Service.
It is becoming clear that health and planning disciplines need close linkages for walkable, comfortable and convenient links for schools, shops and services. Moving by foot should require no thought and should be the preferred option. How that linkage can be positively reinforced will be the subject of a webinar from Simon Fraser University’s City Program on Monday, September 10th. This webinar will be hosting a discussion with Dr William Bird MBE , founder of Intelligent Health UK who works in the intersection between health and city planning across the globe. Price Tags will be providing further registration details soon.
Price Tags Vancouver has been writing about the fact that the crossing times established in North America for pedestrians to cross the street are not based upon the needs of seniors or those with walking assists, who may require a longer crossing time. Price Tags Vancouver covered the unfortunate case in San Francisco where seniors took to the streets (and a particular egregious crossing) to picket for longer “green man” time to enable them to traverse the street safely. San Francisco agreed to allow for 3.5 feet per second on the crossing, despite the fact that 3.0 feet per second is the acceptable standard for pedestrian intersections highly utilized by seniors.
The BBC News has been blunter about the problem with road safety and seniors-the pedestrian “green man” signal is providing crossing times that can kill. While average crossing times are four to seven seconds, older men walk generally at 3 feet per second, while older women traverse at 2.6 feet per second. Senior women are slower than the accepted “averages” used in North America, and the timing does not include the use of mobility assists.
Britain’s Department of Transport recommends crossing times at 4 feet per second, but does allow local councils to adjust the timing to their residents’ mobility.
Prof Mark Baker, director of the centre for guidelines at the National Institute of Health Care Excellence states “It should not matter whether you are on foot, in a wheelchair, have a visual impairment or if you’re a parent pushing a pram. If streets, parks and other open spaces are well planned, everyone should be able to get around their local area easily.
Safe, accessible streets and well-maintained parks can help people to get active and live longer, healthier lives.”
Key to a 21st century approach to universal mobility for all is ensuring that people with impairment or age have the same access to the outdoors, the street network, and be able to traverse streets safely and comfortably. What is also going to be important is recognizing that seniors have just as much right to the safe comfortable use of the infrastructure network as the younger and more able bodied. The challenge will be for us to accept slower motordom speeds and longer pedestrian signal wait times as part of allowing safe universal accessibility for the most vulnerable of road users.
Metro News Image
Mimi Kirk and City Lab report on a concept that is getting more and more attention-how do you design and plan cities and spaces to optimize the mental health of all citizens? This is also the work that noted landscape Cornelia Oberlander has been advancing as part of the Margolese Prize. A Tokyo-based psychiatrist Layla McCay notes that while mental illness in Japan is comparable to other countries, fewer people seek treatment for it. With stress seen as a major contributor to mental illness in Japan, and high suicide rates, the The Center for Urban Design and Mental Health recommends “that cities incorporate four main themes into urban design to support mental health: green spaces, active spaces, social spaces, and safe spaces.”
In reviewing Tokyo’s streets, McCay noted that governmental officials and planners “tend to approach urban design with a view toward improving physical health rather than mental well-being.” But parks and walkable places also assist with emotional well-being, and “thanks to their focus on greenery, walkability, and beauty, many of the spaces designed to help improve physical health exert similarly positive effects for mental health problems like anxiety and depression.”
Tokyo actually has a program that allows citizens to create green rooftops, wall surfaces, and reclaim unused spaces and parking lots. There are tax incentives. There’s also the 2003 “Ordinance on the promotion of Stylish Townscape Creation” where residents partner with professional landscapers to plant next to their property lines with potted plants, creating a green oasis on side streets. There is also a push to bring more greenery and light indoors into office spaces and shopping malls to minimize workers’ stress and maintain sleep circadian rhythms.
We’ve heard of the term “forest bathing” or immersing in nature. Tokyo has five official trails west of the city accessible by train for forest walks, with some companies mandating visits to the trails as part of their employee health and wellness plans. Tokyo has by design embraced the “Barcelona Superblock” concept of keeping automobiles on main arterial roads with smaller streets having minimal traffic. The accessibility of Tokyo’s public transit has also reinforced keeping traffic on the main roads, and for high usage of the Tokyo transit system. In Tokyo “the city’s automobile ownership rate is only .46 per household—similar to New York City.”
McCay is now reviewing data from Hong Kong, Wroclaw, Poland; Montreal; and Morristown, New Jersey and asking other city researchers to contribute their findings of their own places. “This is the first step in a process in which cities around the world learn from each other about urban design and mental health,” says McCay. “Even if societies think differently about mental health, the challenges are the same and the people are the same. We can all teach each other.”
And there are direct inferences for Vancouver -as we allow for higher density buildings do we forego the park standard of providing 1.1 hectares of park for every 1,000 new residents? And are those green parks going to be within the a five-minute walk of every resident? How do we go about creating walkable continuous green and park like experiences in emerging dense residential areas?
Another new Parklet emerges in front of the recently opened Eastwood Bar and Grill and Pizza Carano on Fraser Street. Interesting to note The Eastwood to my knowledge is the only watering hole on Fraser and in the surrounding community. While having a Pint at the bar, patrons expressed their gratitude there’s finally a pub in the neighbourhood, complete with Trivia night on Tuesdays to boot.
Before photo from Google Earth below:
New York Times Image-Mansplaining Statue
Alissa Walker is a talented writer, Curbed.com’s Urbanism editor and lives in Los Angeles. In Curbed.com Alissa describes something that women in the planning, architectural or design professions know: despite the fact that roughly fifty per cent of the population are women, that is not reflected in the planning language used to describe place, or indeed the people who are talking, thinking, or writing about planning-they are mostly men. Now there was Jane Jacobs, and New York City’s amazing Janette Sadik-Khan, the former Commissioner of Transportation-but where are the other planning women and why are they not widely championed?
Alissa had been reading four books on gentrification, and found “Not only are these four books by men, they’re largely about men. According to the books themselves, the factors that have contributed to gentrification—displacement of marginalized communities, systemically ingrained racism, unequitable housing policy—have been largely implemented by powerful men over the last century.”
“It’s no secret that the lack of gender diversity is an issue for the architecture and development world. It’s also an issue for elected officials who initiate policy: Among U.S. cities with populations of over 30,000, only 20 percent of mayors are women. A 2015 report by the American Planning Association not only notes the lack of gender diversity in urban planning careers—the field is 42 percent female—but also the fact that women are more likely to be affected by urban affordability issues: Up to three-quarters of households living in public housing are solely headed by females.”
Alissa Walker looked at her own media contacts and how she got information about planning, and found that again her links were largely male. “Much of the content I consume daily about city-making is written and distributed by men… I see it at the conferences I attend. On the panels I participate in. In the Facebook groups I join. Even at the meetings where the decisions about neighborhoods are being made… A group of very white, very loud men have confirmed that they are, indeed, the problem when it comes to our cities, and now the conversation about how to fix them is mostly being conducted by very white, very loud men—who happen to be very active on social media.”
Alissa’s article includes a great list of books written by women on planning issues listed below. Quite simply in the twenty-first century we should be supporting not only gender equity in planning our cities, but ensuring that women’s voices in communities are heard and recognized. Reading Ms. Walker’s full article is a good place to start.
Must-Read Books About Cities by Women
Hollow City: The Siege of San Francisco and the Crisis of American Urbanism by Rebecca Solnit
Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin
How Women Saved the City by Daphne Spain
Flâneuse: Women Walk the City in Paris, New York, Tokyo, Venice, and London by Lauren Elkin
The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo by Saskia Sassen
A Black Urbanist by Kristen Jeffers
The Lonely City: Adventures in the Art of Being Alone by Olivia Laing
The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs
Redesigning the American Dream: The Future of Housing, Work and Family Life by Dolores Hayden
Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City by Mary Pattillo
Modern Housing for America: Policy Struggles in the New Deal Era by Gail Radford
Urban Alchemy: Restoring Joy in America’s Sorted-Out Cities by Mindy Thompson Fullilove
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan and Seth Solomonow
Sex and the Revitalized City: Gender, Condominium Development, and Urban Citizenship by Leslie Kahn
Sidewalks: Conflict and Negotiation over Public Space by Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris and Renia Ehrenfeucht
Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities by Leonie Sandercock
The Just City by Susan S. Fainstein
A Neighborhood That Never Changes: Gentrification, Social Preservation, and the Search for Authenticity by Japonica Brown-Saracino
Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs by Ellen Dunham-Jones and June Williamson
The South Side: A Portrait of Chicago and American Segregation by Natalie Moore
Canadian Business Image
With some of the recent events and policies south of the Canadian border it’s no surprise that there is a squish for office space, as reported in the Province by Sam Cooper. While vacancy rates have dropped from 8.3 per cent to 6.8 per cent and sound healthy compared to the housing market, they are not.
“The report from professional services firm JLL says a tight Vancouver commercial real estate market will be driven by new demand from technology companies. Vacancy rates could dive from about seven per cent currently to three per cent in 2019, the JLL report says, which would be “the lowest vacancy rate on record.”
How low is a low office vacancy rate? Cushman and Wakefield estimated that by 2019 “Vancouver is predicted to have the second-lowest office-vacancy rate in the Western hemisphere. ” The vice-president of the services firm JLL noted that he had never seen such a great demand from companies for Vancouver office space in 25 years of work . “A lot of the companies are from the U.S. The low Canadian dollar is attractive, and also we are a market where it is easier to bring in (high-technology) workers from overseas.”
To put that in better perspective, there was 2.3 million square feet of new office space built in the “downtown market” in the last two years. With the swift uptake of office space, it is expected that suburban Metro Vancouver communities will reap business relocations, with higher vacancy rates and lower rents, not to mention the fact that employees would have access to more affordable and varied forms of housing.
The City of Vancouver observes that there are new rezonings in Railtown, the False Creek Flats and in Mount Pleasant for new office space. The challenge is going to be finding the large floor plates and area amenities necessary to accommodate hundreds of new employees working in one office location. Will this be a driver for further office development in other parts of Metro Vancouver?
Daily Hive Image
The City has just repaved the road lanes in the 800-block Robson, using asphalt to raise the roadbed to sidewalk level, creating a constant surface for this now car-free plaza.
And yet, pedestrians largely stick to the sidewalks. That’s the way we’ve been trained since childhood: see asphalt, stay off. It’s only for cars.
That will likely change when the asphalt is painted another colour, street furniture is replaced, performances and demonstrations occur, and more people use the space. But even if we’re not quite conscious of it, something will feel not quite right until the surface design of the plaza is reconfigured from the standard road-and-sidewalk layout.
Sandy James Images
You should, and for several reasons, one of which is your bank account.
The basis of Mr. Litman’s thinking is this: ” Urban fringe housing tends to be cheaper but has higher transportation costs, while housing in more accessible and multi-modal neighborhoods costs more, but households can save on transportation. These often offset each other, so households pay the same in total in both locations. However, urban housing tends to appreciate in value while vehicles depreciate, so Smart Growth housing tends to generate far more long-term wealth. “
Car dependency enriches the oil industry and car manufacturers, and depletes municipal budgets, but people can follow better strategies for living and for building equity and wealth. And city-builders can take note, and continue to focus on compact multi-modal development.
It looks possible that new services will arrive in the mid-term future which may provide low-cost transportation choices. But until then, the trade-off between housing and transportation costs seems like a bad one in the longer term.
CNU is the “Congress For the New Urbanism“. “The Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU) helps create vibrant and walkable cities, towns, and neighborhoods where people have diverse choices for how they live, work, shop, and get around. People want to live in well-designed places that are unique and authentic. CNU’s mission is to help build those places. With seventeen local and state chapters and offices in Chicago, IL and Washington, DC, CNU works to unite the New Urbanist movement.”
Universal accessibility means that everyone, no matter what your ambulatory capability, can safely use city streets and public spaces. It is egalitarian, and morally the right thing to do. Earlier this week Price Tags wrote about the unfortunate response of the City of San Francisco to a group of seniors that wanted more crossing time at a troublesome intersection. The city will lengthen the signal time, but still not at the national standard for seniors to safely cross the street.
Another horrifying example of a municipality doing the work right instead of doing the right work has just happened in Denver Colorado. Kyle Wolf, who is disabled was using his wheelchair to cross a street and “was just five feet from the curb at 19th and Lawrence Streets in downtown Denver when his wheelchair was struck from behind by an SUV. He had legally ventured out into the intersection during a walk signal but was carrying several items that kept slipping off his lap, thus slowing him down as he crossed. The pedestrian signal changed after just 20 seconds, and before he knew it, he’d been hit — injured — and his wheelchair totaled.”
The driver of the SUV was not charged, but Mr. Wolfe received a ticket from the police for his “failure to cross the street with the walk light signal”.Mr. Wolfe was hospitalized with injuries and was later released. Once again just like in San Francisco, the City of Denver trotted out that the nationally accepted Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices standard identifies that only fifteen per cent of the population walk at speed less than 3.5 feet a second, and therefore their twenty-second walk time for this cross walk was within the standard. However if an intersection crosswalk is being used by seniors or people with ambulatory impairments, the accepted crossing speed is established at 3 feet per second. And once again in Denver to minimize any impediment to motordom, the wheelchair user was charged with failure to cross the street in a timely manner while the SUV driver drove away with no charges.
What is wrong with us as a society that we are not encouraging our streets to be safe and to encourage the most vulnerable user, who often has the wheelchair as the sole way of transport? Even in the City of Vancouver all accidents are “pedestrian” so there is no notification on the report of whether the crash occurred with a wheelchair user or a walker. This makes the actual incidence of wheelchair crashes impossible to statistically collect, but it is suspected that wheelchair user crashes are underreported. A 2014 study by BMJ Open found that wheelchair users were three times more likely to die in crashes, and most of these users were killed crossing at intersections.
We are judged by how we treat the most vulnerable of our population. On a city street, bicyclists and pedestrians must have safe comfortable and convenient ways to travel. How do we move towards an inclusive standard that is universal for walkers, including seniors and those in wheelchairs?