From Atlas Obscura via Gladys We:


“The term hostile architecture is new—or new in the popular vernacular anyway,” says James Petty, a freelance criminologist whose PhD research focuses on the ways in which society regulates homelessness. “But practices of designing cities and urban landscapes in certain ways that favor certain groups of people and not others has been going on for a long time.”

Hostile architecture, also known as defensive architecture, exists on a spectrum. At one end are the overt design features that are obvious to anyone walking by—like spikes and fences. At the other end, says Petty, are the design elements in which “the hostile function is often embedded under a socially palatable function.”


Bench 1

Seating in the London borough of Camden  


Bench 2

A shallow bench at the Dublin Docklands.


Bench 3

Divided seating outside London’s Royal Courts of Justice.


Full article and more pics here.